An orchestra concert featuring Hakka-themed music performed by Philharmonia Moments Musicaux (PMM, 樂興之時管絃樂團) was held at Taiwan Traditional Theatre Center on Dec. 15, part of the Taiwan Hakka Music Festival that is taking place across the country from Dec. 12, 2020 through Jan. 30, 2021. Invited by the Hakka Affairs Council (HAC), PMM performed several music pieces that encompass Hakka elements, including “Rondon on Hakka Folksong, Ping-Pan Tune” by Hsu Sung-jen (徐頌仁), “Hakka Capriccio for Cello Octet” by Yen Ming-hsiu (顏名秀), Wu Ruei-ran’s (吳睿然) “Variations on the Theme, 18 Caresses” and “Concertino for Clarinet Homeland Impression, 3rd Movement Reunion,” and “Dialect VI—Association of Hakka Ballad” by Lai Deh-ho (賴德和). According to Paul Chiang (江靖波), the PMM’s founder and conductor, the musical trend in Taiwan’s post-martial law era is similar to musical nationalism which appeared in parts of Europe from the late 19th century to early 20th century. Chiang drew a parallel between nationalist composers who focus on tracing their ethnic origins and attempt to restore the flavor of their homelands and these contemporary creators who use elements of Hakka folk songs to reinvent new tunes, concluding that both of them are essentially alike. Chiang specially selected Béla Bartók’s “Romanian Dances for small orchestra” and Antonín Dvořák’s “Symphony No. 7 in D minor Op. 70, mov. 3/4” to be performed in the second half of the concert. The conductor explained that Hungarian musician Bartók is an iconic nationalist composer, and Dvořák, a Czech composer, spent his whole life promoting grassroots culture of his native Bohemia, likening the pair’s musical pieces to the vitality of Hakka music.